The Role Of Tvet Colleges In Minimizing Youth Unemployment Rate
Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural and cultural process whereby the youth gain the ability to make decisions and employment changes in his or her hues and other people including adults. It is usually addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. The language all over Africa including Nigeria and Ethiopia is the creation of specific jobs to take the millions of youth out of the restrict of poverty and underemployment thereby empowering the youth. The need to link entrepreneurial training with TVET would provide gainful employment (paid or self-employment) to the recipient which is the base for industrialization and technological development. The UNESCO, (2003)., while addressing the need for fostering entrepreneurship mind sets and promoting entrepreneurship education among the youth recommends TVET as a sure way out of poverty facing the youth worldwide today. It is a fact that the society needs men and women that are capable of establishing businesses that would help cushion the adverse effects of mass unemployment and poverty which entrepreneurial skills in TVET affords. Entrepreneurial studies allows the beneficiaries to consider various occupational possibilities the work required, available rewards, necessary training and relative advantages and disadvantages of eachyouths (Nwoye, 2011).The scope of entrepreneurship education according to the UNESCO, (2003) includes creativity, innovations, risk taking and the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. In line with the scope of entrepreneurship education, and by its definition as the ability to turn ideas into action, the International Labor Organization in its recent appraisal of the world job situation urged member nations to create specific program to engage the youth in vocational areas of automobile mechanic, metal work, electrical electronics, carpentry, tailoring among others. Such intervention, the ILO opined was the solution to the ever-widening challenges of youths’ joblessness worldwide. TVET prepares its graduates for employment in the workplace. It is in this spirit that the federal government of Ethiopia introduced the level by level system of education:in TVET colleges.
The deepening youth unemployment and need to empower the youth requires training them in entrepreneurial education through TVET. Introducing entrepreneurial studies as an explicit goal in the curriculum will be a clear signal that it is important for every student. Moreover, it will make it easier for trainers to spend teaching hours on the subject. A general trend should be on how to shift national curriculum from content to competences. This process would strengthen competency-based teaching and learning to make it easier for entrepreneurship to be included in the TVET colleges programs. It is important that TVET colleges extend entrepreneurial training to all fields of study in TVET. This Dike (2009) opined would enable graduates of TVET to make intelligent use of the product of technology and develop better entrepreneurial skills to become more youth’s innovative workers. Persons who have passed through TVET program become more dutiful and conscientious in their duties. TVET reduces unemployment in the society (Oranu, 1991; Olaitan, 1992). In a country like Ethiopia where high rate of youths unemployment is being experienced as evidence in different studies, likely brought by the system failure, coupled with inability of government to create job for the teaming youth (Muhammed, 2010) means that entrepreneurship in TVET could be employed to develop viable skills in the youth so that they become easily self-employed or employable after graduation. The promotion of entrepreneurial studies would create opportunities for employment with subsequent income multiplier effects for the surrounding community. If job creation and entrepreneurial activities are carefully coordinated, then it would not be argued that increased entrepreneurship would no doubt help the most disadvantaged in the labor market. This become more important because there seem no indication that unemployment will be eradicated completely in the 21st century. The situation according to Maigida (2012) become worse due to the change in the competencies required of job seekers in the labor market brought about by innovations in technology which makes it necessary for youth to acquire specialized skills to enable them cope with the current trends in technology and the labor market. Entrepreneurship in TVET may serve as a tool for achieving youth empowerment. This is possible in the light of TVETs’ immense contributions to social and economic development to individuals.